Diamonds, carbon copies of brilliance...  
 

Diamond is the King of gems. Its hardness and luminousness are very high. The magical attraction of this gem is really mystifying. Those who love diamonds will part with any amount to posses them.

Origin:
The origin of the word ‘diamond’ cam from the Greek word ‘Adams’ meaning the unconquerable.  There is  no other gem in nature which has the hardness of a diamond

Chemical Properties & Hardness:
The basic composition of a diamond is carbon. The surface of a real diamond is rough and less refractive to light. Usually, the one which rays pass through  completely is colorless. The hardness of a diamond is measured as 10. Density is 3.5gm/cm3. Refractive index is  n2.417.

Colors and Shapes:
Brilliant cutting, oval cutting, pear cutting, round cutting, star cutting 

Purpose:
For marital harmony, charisma.
For smoothening of skin. 
Ladies who want a baby boy should not wear a diamond.

Diamond Production:
Leading miners - India, Brazil, South Africa, Borneo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Russia, China and Australia are some of the .
Artificial diamonds for commercial - Britain, France and Sweden.

Kohinnoor Diamond Tale:      
In Astrogemmology the diamond represents the planet, Venus. The most famous diamond in the world is the Kohinoor. The story of the Kohinoor is a mixture of mythology and reality. 

The gem was known as ‘Syamanthakam’ in the Puranas and was given by King Soorya to a Yadava king Sathrajith  (Yadava is a tribe in to which Lord Krishna was born.) His brother Prasenan worn this gem and went to the forest on a  hunt. Instead he was pounced upon by a lion and in the ensuing battle a third person by the time of Jambava – a  mythological character  - entered the fray, killed the lion and absconded with the gem.

After many years, in BC 3rd century, the ‘Syamanthakam’ fell into the hands of Emperor Asoka the Great. (The history  or the whereabouts of the gem in between the period of Jambava and Emperor Asoka is not known). The gem  reached several kings by hereditary transfer of power and finally reached the Maurya kingdom from King Para Mara.

 In 1306 A.D., Aladdin Khilji got hold of it . Later, it reached Emperor Babar from King Humayun. The Moghul emperors  held on to it till 1739.  Thereafter, Emperor Nadir Shah conquered the Moghul kingdom and transferred the ‘Mayura throne’ and this gem to Persia. When he first saw the gem he exclaimed that it was a ‘Kohinoor’, which means  mountain of light – a Persian word. 

In 1749, Afghan Ahmad Shah Abudali got it. Much later, in 1850,it reached the East India Company and C.G Mantan  presented it to the Empress Victoria. After thousands and thousands of years of war and bloodshed for this priceless  gem, which weighs 187carats, it is now studded in the crown of the British queen.